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Phonological Processes

Phonological processes simply defines as The "defectiveness" of language sounds patterns due to the influence of some factors.  Although the phonological systems of different languages are governed by different rules, the variation which occurs does, for the most part, fall within certain parameters. Similar phonological processes turn up, in language after language.

a. Assimilation
This term refers to the process of sound change where one sound is influenced or modified by other sounds. Based on its direction, it is classified into regressive  and progressive.  The first happens when the following sound in a word influences the preceding sound, while the second, when the preceding sound influences the following sound since the preceding sound is too dominant. (see the examples).
There are some assimilation processes occur caused by different influence, those are:

- Labialisation
This assimilation process happens when sound is pronounced with some degree of secondary lip rounding. Take a close attention to this group of words:
Those words are said with some degree of secondary lip rounding. Anticipating the next segment, which is a rounded vowel, the speaker starts rounding the lips before the articulation of the consonant is completed, this process is called labialisation. It can be indicated in a phonetic transcription by using the raised w after a consonant [Cw].

- Palatalization
If labialisation refers to assimilation process dealing with the position of lips, palatalization deals with tongue position. It occurs when velar consonants or alveolar consonants are made partly in the palatal region due to some slight anticipatory fronting of the part of the tongue that makes contact with the roof of the mouth. Consider these phrases below:

- Voice Assimilation
It refers to the process of voiceless consonant changing into voiced consonant, many cases occur in suffixes. Given the fact that speech is a continuum, the process of putting the vocal cords close together to produce voicing or keeping them wide apart to produce voicelessness is not always perfectly synchronized with other articulatory gestures. This may mean voicing spilling over into an adjacent segment. This frequently happens where a voiceless consonant occurs between two (voiced) vowels (Katamba, 1996: 88-89).
(i) [-z] occurring with the words in column A 
(ii) [-s] occurring with the words in column B 
(iii) [-iz] occurring with the words in column C 

- Nasalization
It is a process whereby an oral segment acquires nasality from a neighboring segment.
Taken from Kikuyu (Kenya), some vowels are nasalized when they occur in the neighborhood of nasal consonants. Raised dash above vowel is the indication of nasalized vowel.

b. Dissimilation
This term refers to phonological processes which ensure that differences between sounds are enhanced so that sounds become more auditorily distinct make speech perception easier.
al, the base form of one of adjective marker suffix has two variations in manifestation (allomorph) al and ar. al usually occurs when its root contains r consonant in it, for instance: electric => electrical, region=> regional. on the other hand, ar usually occurs when its root contains l consonant in it, just like: single => singular, circle => circular.

Besides, dissimilation process also occurs in these below words:
government => govement
Particular => paticular
Surprise => Supprise

d. Lenition

e. Syncope

f. Appocope
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