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Phonological Processes

Phonological processes simply defines as The "defectiveness" of language sounds patterns due to the influence of some factors.  Although the phonological systems of different languages are governed by different rules, the variation which occurs does, for the most part, fall within certain parameters. Similar phonological processes turn up, in language after language.

a. Assimilation
This term refers to the process of sound change where one sound is influenced or modified by other sounds. Based on its direction, it is classified into regressive  and progressive.  The first happens when the following sound in a word influences the preceding sound, while the second, when the preceding sound influences the following sound since the preceding sound is too dominant. (see the examples).
There are some assimilation processes occur caused by different influence, those are:

- Labialisation
This assimilation process happens when sound is pronounced with some degree of secondary lip rounding. Take a close attention to this group of words:
Those words are said with some degree of secondary lip rounding. Anticipating the next segment, which is a rounded vowel, the speaker starts rounding the lips before the articulation of the consonant is completed, this process is called labialisation. It can be indicated in a phonetic transcription by using the raised w after a consonant [Cw].

- Palatalization
If labialisation refers to assimilation process dealing with the position of lips, palatalization deals with tongue position. It occurs when velar consonants or alveolar consonants are made partly in the palatal region due to some slight anticipatory fronting of the part of the tongue that makes contact with the roof of the mouth. Consider these phrases below:

- Voice Assimilation
It refers to the process of voiceless consonant changing into voiced consonant, many cases occur in suffixes. Given the fact that speech is a continuum, the process of putting the vocal cords close together to produce voicing or keeping them wide apart to produce voicelessness is not always perfectly synchronized with other articulatory gestures. This may mean voicing spilling over into an adjacent segment. This frequently happens where a voiceless consonant occurs between two (voiced) vowels (Katamba, 1996: 88-89).
(i) [-z] occurring with the words in column A 
(ii) [-s] occurring with the words in column B 
(iii) [-iz] occurring with the words in column C 

- Nasalization
It is a process whereby an oral segment acquires nasality from a neighboring segment.
Taken from Kikuyu (Kenya), some vowels are nasalized when they occur in the neighborhood of nasal consonants. Raised dash above vowel is the indication of nasalized vowel.

b. Dissimilation
This term refers to phonological processes which ensure that differences between sounds are enhanced so that sounds become more auditorily distinct make speech perception easier.
al, the base form of one of adjective marker suffix has two variations in manifestation (allomorph) al and ar. al usually occurs when its root contains r consonant in it, for instance: electric => electrical, region=> regional. on the other hand, ar usually occurs when its root contains l consonant in it, just like: single => singular, circle => circular.

Besides, dissimilation process also occurs in these below words:
government => govement
Particular => paticular
Surprise => Supprise

d. Lenition

e. Syncope

f. Appocope

Wonderful Indonesia

Kinds of Code Switching

Crystal (1987) suggests that code switching occurs when individual who is bilingualism alternates between two languages during his/her speech with another bilingual person.

There are kinds of code switching as suggested by some sociolinguists:

Blom and Gumperz (1972):

Situational Code Switching
  • It occurs when the language change according to the situational in which the conversations find themselves; It can be found in the use of speech level in languages which have speeches levels. Each of the levels has its social function and is used in certain interlocutors. For instance, a young speaker will use the upper (very formal) level of the language to and older listener in kind of situation; and he will use the lower (intimate) level to communicate of the person with same age.
Metaphorical Code Switching
  • It has an affective dimension to it: the choice of code carries symbolic meaning, that is, the language fits the message. This is illustrated in a quote attributed to Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, which indicates attitudes about certain languages being holy, the language of love or male solidarity, or crude or bestial: ‘I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men, and German to my horse.’

Hoffman (1991):

Tag switching (Emblematic)
  • With tag switching, it is the insertion of a tag phrase from one language into an utterance from another language which constitutes a switch, and given the tags are monolingual utterance without syntactic rules, for example: An adult Spanish-American English speaker: “„. . . Oh! Ay! It was embarrassing! It was very nice, though, but I was embarrassed"

Inter-sentential switching (between sentences)
  • It occurs outside the sentence or the clause level, and often takes place according to turns taken by speakers in a conversation, example an adult Spanish-English bilingual says: “Tenia zapatos blancos, un poco, they were off-white, you know”

Intra-sentential switching 
  • It concerns language alternation that occurs within a sentence or a clause boundary. Sometimes it includes mixing within word boundaries. The switch that occurs within a sentence. It is often occurred when someone uses one language and suddenly switches into another language in a sentence, for example: a French-English bilingual says: “Va chercer Marc (go and fetch March) and bribe him avec un chocolat chaud (with a hot chocolate) with cream on top” 

Negative Politeness Strategies (Brown and Levinson)

Another kind of politeness strategies is negative politeness. This strategy used when S wants to show that he cares and respect H’s Negative Face. If S did or will do an FTA, he will minimize the threat by using apology, deference, hedges and other strategies. Negative Politeness strategies consist in assurances that the speaker recognizes and respects the addressee’s negative-Face wants and will not (or will only minimally) interfere with the addressee Freedom of Action.

This strategy assumes that there might be some social distance or awkwardness between speaker and hearer and it is likely to be used whenever a speaker wants to put a social brake on his interaction (Brown and Levinson, 1987: 129).

Moreover, they (p. 129) introduce some strategies that included in negative politeness, they are:

1. Be direct
In the formal situation, sometimes the directness is needed to minimize the imposition by saying the point and avoiding the further imposition of prolixity and ambiguity as mentioned by Lakoff (in Goody, 1996). Fortunately, this strategy is rarely used in negative politeness because it is more relevant to be used in bald on-record strategy. For example, “Help me to pick up these boxes!”
In this strategy, S chooses to come rapidly to the point directly when she or he wants something. She does not care about maintaining face of the H but still respects and assure not to disturb the freedom of action of H.

2. Don’t assume about H’s wants
This type tries to avoid assuming that anything in FTA is desired or believed by H. it is stressed by hedging such assumptions in the form of word and phrase that modify the degree of predicate membership. For example, “A swing is sort of a toy’, or “You are quite right”.

3. Don’t coerce H
a. By avoiding coercing H’s response means that S gives H the option not to do a certain act.
b. By avoiding coercion of H means that S minimizes the threat by clarifying S view of the P, D and R values. 
c. Communicate S want not to impinge on H Indicate that S is aware and he takes account in his decision to communicate the FTA is one of the ways to satisfy H’s negative face.

4. Redress others’ wants of H
This is the higher strategy of negative politeness that consists of offering partial compensation for the face threat in FTA. It shows that negative politeness attends to other wants can be derived (H’s desire for territorial integrity and self determination). 

Concept of Face and FTA (Face Threatening Acts)

Based on Brown and Levinson (1987: 61) “Face is derived from the notion of Goffman and English people which is related to the idea of being embarrassed or humiliated, or ‘loosing Face’.” Since Face is something that is emotionally invested, can be lost, maintained, or enhanced, a person has to pay attention to his interlocutor’s Face. In other words, the speaker and the hearer must cooperate in maintaining each other’s Face in interaction. The action of maintaining each other’s Face called ‘Face work’.
Moreover, Goffman in Renkema (1993: 13) introduces the concept of face as an image which is projected by a person in his social contacts with others. Face has the meaning as in the saying to loose fact. Based on the opinion of Goffman, every participant in the social process has the need to be appreciated by others and the need to be free and not to be disturbed. He calls the need to be appreciated as a ‘positive face’ and the need to be free or not to be disturbed is called as ‘negative face’.
While negative face is defined as the desire of every member that he has Freedom of Action as well as freedom of imposition (the desire to not to be disturbed). For example is a father who is in the middle of giving advice to his children expects that his children do not tend to interrupt his speech (freedom of imposition).

Face Threatening Acts (FTA)
Politeness strategies are developed for the main purpose of dealing with the FTA’s. We understand the notion of ‘face’ previously from the dramaturgical theories of Erving Goffman that individuals as social actors perform (present a public self) on the stage of everyday life. The acts that threaten either the negative or positive face of the hearer are called ‘Face Threatening Acts’ (FTA) (Brown and Levinson, 1987: 65). There are acts that threaten the H’s Negative Face such as order, request, suggestion, advice, reminding, threat, warning, offer, promise, compliment and expression of negative emotion. Here, the speaker does not intend to avoid impeding H’s Freedom of Action. For example, when you ask someone to lend you some money, you are considered threaten that person’s Negative Face. It happens since you have violated his want to be free from being imposed.
In contrast, there are acts that threaten the H’s Positive Face such as expression of dissatisfaction, criticisms, complaints, accusation, and insult, disagreement, out of control emotion, irreverence, and bringing bad news about H or boasting about S, raising divisive topics, and blatant non-cooperation in an activity. All these acts indicate that the speaker does not care about the addressee’s feeling or wants. For example, disagreeing with someone’s opinion also causes a threat to his Positive Face, as it means that you indicate that he is wrong about something.

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